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Biographical information can be found on the internet. However, when you use them academically, you have to gain accurate information by referring to several reliable sources which you can clearly specify.
The information about historical figures and also stil-living persons who made remarkable achievements can be found in general biographical dictionaries, which cover wide ranges of fields and eras, and also in encyclopedias.
General Biographical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias (Japan)
Nihon Jinmei Daijiten [Kodansha] (Library subscription database [JapanKnowledge Lib]) *in Japanese only
The largest Japanese biographical encyclopedia. Originally published as Kodansha Nihon Jinmei Daijiten (2001).
事典や辞書を中心とした総合データベース。「日本大百科全書（ニッポニカ）」「世界大百科事典」「日本国語大辞典（日国オンライン）」「字通」「日本歴史地名大系」「国史大辞典」「ランダムハウス英和大辞典」「情報・知識imidas」「現代用語の基礎知識」「週刊エコノミスト」「会社四季報」「東洋文庫」など多数のコンテンツを利用できる。（収録コンテンツ一覧） Encycropedias, dictionaies and Databases 2月27日（土）9:00 ～ 18:00 以上の時間帯、全サービスの停止 Saturday, February 27, 9:00 - 18:00 (Japan Standard Time) Service will be unavailable due to system maintenance.
Biographies on notables from every part of the world and from all time periods.
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography [Oxford University Press] (Library subscription database)
Provides biographical information on key figures in British history. Contains the full-text of all 60 volumes of the 2004 printed edition, and also the past 33 editions printed between 1884 and 1996.
Gaikoku Jinbutsu Refarensu Jiten (Index of Non-Japanese Biographical Encyclopedia) [Nichigai Associates] (book) *in Japanese only
Unified indexes of historic Japanese figures listed in leading Japanese biographical dictionaries, encyclopedias, and history encyclopedias, with which you can search for the sources to refer to.
General biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias cover the information about the peoples whose achievements are already recognized as historical, so the completeness of the data on people in our time tends to be not enough. In such cases, Who’s Who and other similar resources which cover particularly still-living people are useful. Who was Who and other resources specialized in people who recently past away should also be referred to.
Nihon Shinshiroku (Japanese Who’s Who) [Kojunsha Shuppankyoku] (book) *in Japanese only
Jinji Koshinroku (Biographical Directory) [Jinji Koshinjo] (book) *in Japanese only
These are the oldest who’s who in Japan. They had provided the biographical information in various fields since Meiji era. However, Nihon Shinshiroku ended its revision and publication in 2007 with the 80th edition; so did Jinji Koshinroku in 2009 with the 45th edition.
Gendai jinmeiroku (Contemporary Who’s Who) [Yomiuri Shimbun] (Library subscription database [Yomidasu Rekishi Kan]) *in Japanese only
Jinbutsu Database (Biography Database) [Asahi Shimbun] (Library subscription database [Kikuzo II Visual]) *in Japanese only
Who’s who included in Japanese newspaper databases. Provides biographical information of people likely to appear on papers.
朝日新聞記事データベース。新聞記事のほか、「AERA」（創刊号～）や「週刊朝日」（2000年4月～）「知恵蔵」「人物データベース」「歴史写真データベース」なども利用可能。 一部コンテンツのTrial : 2020/12/1-2021/1/31 Newspaper database for Asahi Shimbun. Also includes articles from the weekly magazines AERA and Shukan Asahi. Trial for some optional contents: 2020/12/1-2021/1/31
Gendai Gaikoku Jinmeiroku (Non-Japanese Who’s who) [Nichigai Associates] (book) *in Japanese only
The only non-Japanese who’s who in Japan published every four years. 2016 edition includes approximately 10,000 biographies.
Marquis Biographies Online [Marquis] (Library subscription database)
Contains about 1.4 million biographies taken from Marquis’s 25 field-specific biographical dictionaries such as Who’s Who in America and Who’s Who in the world published after 1985.
Marquis社の人名録から全分野で活躍する著名人の人物情報を収録 Current biographies of the most accomplished individuals from all fields who appeared in Marquis print titles since 1985
Besides the Who’s Who of England, Waseda University also holds country-specific Who’s Who. You can find them by searching WINE with key words such as "Who's Who" or "Who was Who".
Who’s Who (England) [A. & C. Black] (book)
Published since 1849. Entries include judges, civil servants, politicians and notable figures from academia, sport and the arts. Who was Who includes the entries of people now deceased, who were included in previous editions of Who's Who.
There are so many people who made remarkable achievements in specific fields but are not included in general biographical dictionaries or who's who. In such cases, the biographical sources specialized in the fields should be referred to.
Biographical Dictionaries in Specific Fields
researchmap (public web site)
Provides approximately 220,000 profiles of researchers (as of Apr, 2014).
Nikkei Who's Who [Nihon Keizai Shimbun] (Library subscription database [Nikkei Telecom 21]) *in Japanese only
Who’s Who on the presidents, directors, executives, and division heads of Japanese companies. Similar information can be found in other library subscription databases too.
日経4紙記事全文、企業・人事情報など Nikkei's business newspapers, Japanese company information, and who's who directry. 1月30日（土）19:00 ～ 19:40 以上の時間帯、全サービスの停止 Saturday, January 30, 19:00 - 19:40 (Japan Standard Time) Service will be unavailable due to system maintenance.
Information from Dictionaries, Almanacs, Handbooks in Specific Fields
Not only from biographical dictionaries, biographical information sometimes can be obtained from dictionaries, almanacs, and handbooks of specific fields.
Nihon Kindai Bungaku Daijiten (Dictionary of modern Japanese literature) [Kodansha] (book) *in Japanese only
The most complete reference book on modern Japanese literature. Vol. 1-3 are the biographies of authors.
Bijutsu Nenkan (Japanese Art Annual) [Bijutsu Nenkansha] (book) *in Japanese only
Contains the list of Japanese contemporary artists.
Contemporary Authors [Gale] (Library subscription database [Literature Resource Center])
Biographical and bibliographical data on today’s most influential novelists, poets, playwrights, nonfiction writers, journalists and scriptwriters.
文学研究の総合データベース。作家の人物情報、作品の概要や評論を含む。 A complete literature reference database. Includes biographical information, overviews, full-text literary criticism, and reviews.
Contemporary Literary Criticism
Dictionary of Literary Biography
Gale Cengage Learning
Literature Resource Center
Biographies And Other Sources
Besides biographical dictionaries and who’s who, the materials written about specific persons such as biographies, critical essays, and memoires are also helpful, especially when you try to find detailed biographical information. To find such sources, books listed below are useful.
Catalogs for Finding Biographies And Other Sources
Nihon Jinbustu Bunken Mokuroku (Catalog of Biographical Materials in Japan) [Heibonsha] (book) *in Japanese only
Includes biographical materials published from early years of Meiji to 1966.
Jinbustu Bunken Mokuroku(Catalog of Biographical Materials) [Nichigai Associates] (book) *in Japanese only
Annual bibliography of biographical materials. Published every year since 1980.
Denki Hyoden Zen Joho (Comprehensive Catalog of Biographies and Critical Biographies) [Nichigai Associates] (book) *in Japanese only
Comprehensive bibliography of biographies and critical biographies published after 1945.
Biographical books [Bowker] (book)
Includes the list of biographies, autobiographies, collective biographies, letters, and diaries.
SUBJECT Search on WINE
If you search for the last and the first name of the person you are interested in with the Subject search from Advanced search on WINE, you can look for the books written about the person. e.g. "Takata Sanae"
Find Biographical Dictionaries and Related Sources
The sources we could not introduce here can be searched with the materials below.
Jinmei Jiten Daijiten (Dictionary of Biographical Dictionaries) [Jinmei Joho Kenkyukai] (book) *in Japanese only
Includes about 20,000 entries of biographical dictionaries, directories, and related works. Field-specific editions, region-specific editions, and overseas editions are available.
Meibo Meikan Zenjoho (Complete List of Biographical Directories in Japan) [Nichigai Associates] (book) *in Japanese only
The general catalog of the registries and directories published in Japan between 1945 and 2004, including who’s who and biographical dictionaries.
Nihon Jinmei Joho Sakuin (Index of Japanese Biographical Information) [National Diet Library] (book) *in Japanese only
Government personnel lists, member lists of industry groups, and registries with detailed profiles of actors and sports athletes.
Biographical Dictionaries and Related Works [Gale Research Co.] (book)
The second edition published in 1986 covers about 16,000 biographical dictionaries, biographical directories, and encyclopedias of all the countries of the world.